What is HIV?
“HIV” stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. To understand what that means, let’s break it down:
Human – This particular virus can only infect human beings.
Immunodeficiency – HIV weakens your immune system by destroying important cells that fight disease and infection. A "deficient" immune system can't protect you.
Virus – A virus can only reproduce itself by taking over a cell in the body of its host.
HIV is a virus that attacks a key part of the immune system – the T-cells or CD4 cells - which help defend the body against illness. Left untreated, HIV can destroy so many CD4 cells that your body can't fight infections and diseases anymore. When that happens, HIV can lead to an AIDS diagnosis.
Not everyone who has HIV progresses to AIDS. With antiretrovirals (ARVs) – prescribed medications for people with HIV – it is possible to reduce the amount of HIV in the body to very low levels. With proper medical treatment, someone with HIV can live a healthy, normal lifespan and also reduce the chance of passing the virus to others.
What is AIDS?
“AIDS” stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. To understand what that means, let’s break it down:
Acquired – AIDS is not something you inherit from your parents. You acquire AIDS after birth.
Immuno – Your body's immune system includes all the organs and cells that work to fight off infection or disease.
Deficiency – You get AIDS when your immune system is "deficient," or isn't working the way it should.
Syndrome – A syndrome is a collection of symptoms and signs of disease. AIDS is a syndrome, rather than a single disease, because it is a complex illness with a wide range of complications and symptoms.
AIDS, or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, is a clinical diagnosis that indicates an advanced stage of HIV.
An AIDS diagnosis is determined when the number of healthy immune system cells (also known as one’s CD4 or T-cell count) in an HIV-positive person’s body drops to a low level or when someone with HIV develops certain illnesses, called opportunistic infections, which result from a weakened immune system. These may include Kaposi’s sarcoma, tuberculosis, lymphoma, pneumonia, and other cancers such as invasive cervical cancer. Someone with HIV may receive an AIDS diagnosis from a health care provider if they have one or more specific opportunistic infections, certain cancers, or a very low number of healthy immune system cells.
Once someone receives an AIDS diagnosis, it is not reversed – meaning that person will always be considered to have AIDS – but an individual’s condition can improve with proper treatment. With antiretrovirals (ARVs) – prescribed medications for people living with HIV - and ongoing medical care, it is possible to increase one’s T-cell count and reduce the amount of the virus in one’s body (also known as viral load).
How does someone get HIV?
HIV is spread through unprotected vaginal and anal sex – and, to a much lesser degree, through oral sex* – with someone with HIV. “Unprotected” here refers to sex without condoms or the use of medications that reduce the risk of passing HIV from one person to another. Open mouth kissing also can present a risk (still low) if there is blood or sores in the mouth. Sharing needles is another (higher risk) way HIV can be spread.
As important as knowing how someone can get HIV is knowing how someone cannot get HIV. HIV is NOT spread through saliva, tears, sweat or casual contact, like touching or holding hands, a kiss on the cheek, sharing glasses or plates, food, swimming pools, toilet seats, or other every day activities.
HIV can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, birth and through breastfeeding, although this risk can be almost eliminated – reduced to less than one percent – with antiretroviral (ARVs) and supervised medical care during pregnancy. After birth, a baby may also be put on ARVs for a short period to reduce the chance of getting HIV. ARVs are prescribed medications for people with HIV to improve health.
*According to the CDC: "Though oral sex carries a much lower risk of HIV transmission than other sexual activities, the risk is not zero. It is difficult to measure the exact risk because people who practice oral sex may also practice other forms of sex during the same encounter. When transmission occurs, it may be the result of oral sex or other, riskier sexual activities, such as anal or vaginal sex. Several factors may increase the risk of HIV transmission through oral sex, including oral ulcers, bleeding gums, genital sores, and the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)."
Why have some populations been more affected by HIV than others?
One reason some groups and areas have been more affected by HIV/AIDS than others is because the HIV prevalence – the percent of the population that has HIV – is already high. In other words, the chances of coming in contact with the virus and thus also the risk of infection is greater.
A common misperception is that groups with higher rates of HIV are acting less responsibly. In fact, research shows that this is not the case. Groups more at-risk for HIV are generally found to get tested more frequently, use condoms more often and take other precautions to protect against HIV as compared with other groups. The chance of being exposed to the virus is just greater in these social networks and so the response must also be greater.
What are the symptoms of HIV?
As with many other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV often shows NO symptoms initially. As a result, people who have HIV often don’t find out until much later when the disease is further along and treatments may be less effective.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that about one in seven people in the U.S. who have HIV do not know they do.
Early diagnosis and ongoing treatment can improve health and extend life for people with HIV and can also help prevent HIV transmission to others. Someone with HIV on antiretroviral (ARV) treatment can reduce the risk of passing the virus to others by as much as 96 percent.
The only way to know if you or anyone else has HIV is to get tested. To find HIV testing locations in your area, visit the AIDS.gov locator or visit one of Tarrant County's HIV testing service providers.
Is there a vaccine or cure for HIV and/or AIDS?
There is currently no cure or vaccine for HIV and/or AIDS, but there are very effective prescription medications – called antiretrovirals or ARVs – that are helping people with HIV live long and healthy lives and prevent the spread of the disease to others. It is possible with ARV treatment to reduce the amount of HIV in the blood to very low levels – this is called being “undetectable.” Someone who is undetectable still has HIV but is significantly less likely to pass the virus to others.
People Living with HIV on Effective Treatment Cannot Transmit HIV
Understanding that people with HIV who are undetectable cannot transmit HIV to their partners will help reduce decades of HIV-related stigma and discrimination and encourage people with HIV to initiate and adhere to a successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen.
Only an estimated 40% of the 1.2 million people with HIV in the U.S. are on ART, and less than 10% are aware of the extent to which an undetectable viral load prevents HIV transmission. This points to the need for much greater awareness about the benefits of ART and improved access to HIV testing, treatment and care.
People living with HIV who have been on ART for at least six months with an undetectable viral load have a negligible risk of sexual transmission of HIV. The CDC’s “negligible” risk category includes “spitting” and “throwing body fluids.” A person with HIV becomes “undetectable” when ART suppresses the virus to a level so low in their blood that it cannot be detected by measurements. The consensus statement is the first of its kind to bring together HIV experts and activists to clarify the research and clear up mixed messages on this important subject.
To learn more about the Undetectable Equals Untransmittable (U=U) campaign.
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